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WHAT IS HYPOXIA?
Hypoxia is the condition where there is a lower than the normal oxygen concentration in the arterial blood. It happens when there is an interruption of the normal respiratory and therefore it can be the result of respiratory inadequacy.
The last years, the response of the human cells, tissues and body to either induced or innate hypoxia has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. In 2019 nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.” They identified molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen.
In parallel to their research, research on the effect of the intermittent hypoxia was intensified during the last 5 years all around the world. The use of the so-called intermittent hypoxia therapy (IHT) in athletic and military practices as well as medical applications for prevention and treatment of various diseases has gained interest among the scientific community and has shed light to the beneficial potential of the technology.
example of the mechanistic explanation of the prophylactic mechanism of the
IHT against factor that lead to arteriosclerosis
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY BIOLOGICAL
EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA?
The compensatory nature of the effect of the Intermittent Hypoxia on the human cells and consequently on the human tissues seems to be a complex issue. A lot of different mechanisms are modulated by intermittent hypoxia such as (but not limited to):
- Downregulation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species
- Expression of hypoxia responsive genes including some for erythropoietin and growth factors
- Control of mitochondrial quality
These mechanisms are often interlinked and the basic research is focusing on exploring further their role to disease and its prevention, its treatment and even its healing.
HOW IS HYPOXIC THERAPY HAPPENING?
It involves breathing in hypoxic (low oxygen) air with intervals of hyperoxic (high oxygen) air. Normoxic (normal oxygen concentration) phases can replace the hyperoxic phases, but are generally less efficient, since the restoration of the normal SpO2 levels takes longer and the effect of the succesive hypoxic phase is decreased. The patient quietly inhales the air mixture supplied by the precisely controlled unit through a mask.
IHT significantly improves the control of mitochondrial quality, which is regulated by balance between the biogenesis –birth of new- and autophagic destruction –death of old- of mitochondria. In simpler words, a self imposed quality control is achieved by the establishment of fine balance between the elimination of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria and the generation of new and “healthy” mitochondria.
INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA | APPLICATION FIELDS
One of the most striking therapeutic perspectives of IHT is its application in respiratory insufficiencies. It can be used as a therapeutic tool to restore lost respiratory motor output in severe clinical disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
COGNITIVE | GERIATRIC
IHT has been proved to be an easy and safe therapy that improves cognitive performance and functional exercise capacity in geriatric patients. Considering the effect of the therapy on mitochondria, IHT promises to offer a higher quality of life to the silver generation.
Studies have concluded that IHT can be used as a preventive therapy for professionals dealing with harmful substances. Research has shown that it caused significant improvements in the respiratory system and
in the feeling of well-being in populations working in an aggravating for the lungs environment.
In metabolic syndrome the metabolic hormones alter, leading to increased food intake, obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. IH protocols have been shown to have a beneficial effect on metabolism including reduction of body weight, cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
Moderate IH protocols elicit beneficial cardiovascular effects. Specifically, there is evidence that IH conditioning is safe and effective therapy both for the prevention and the treatment of systematic hypertension, while it is also a promising therapeutic strategy in myocardial infraction.
STRESS MANAGEMENT | BURNOUT
Mitochondrial disorders have been directly associated with chronic fatigue and also identified as coexisiting condition in patients diagnosed with burnout. IHT regenerates the mitochondria and therefore, offers a non - pharmacological option for treating conditions that influence not only the individual suffering from it, but also the socioeconomic prosperity of the community.
Chronic (reactivated) Lyme disease has become an endemic problem in the past 10 years. The antibiotic therapy has been shown to be effective only in the early phase after infection. Existing clinical double-blind studies concluded that an antibiotic therapy of chronic Lyme disease is not indicated, and the patients do not benefit symptomatologically.
Borrelia produces inflammatory cytokines that harm mitochondria energy production. This can cause an impairement of the immune system decreasing its anosological reaction towards the bacteria and creating a vicious cycle that favours Borrelia. IHHT can increase the quality of the mitochondria on our tissues relieving the effect of the Borelia infection
Proposed scheme of the effect of Borrelia infection on metabolic and signaling pathways within host cells. This scheme shows the cells normal processes (solid arrows) used to scavenge free radicals and maintain calcium homeostasis. The proposed effect of Borrelia infection is shown (dashed arrows) by the induced state of oxidative stress, disrupted calcium homeostasis, increased pro-inﬂammatory cytokines, and ultimately, mitochondrial dysfunction.
However, apart form the strengthening of the immune system against the bacterial intruders, it seems that IHHT can prevent Borrelia from progressing through the following mechanisms
Exposure of the Borellia in a hyperoxic environment after first inducing blood hypoxia that encourages its reproduction and circulation
By increasing the oxygen transfer to the hypoxic shelters of Borellia through the production of nitrous oxide
By the toxicity of NO to the bacterial genome
Cellairone® technology helps the reprograming of cell metabolism using interval hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy (IHHT). The hypoxic gas is the major trigger for the accelerated proliferation of new, healthy mitochondria. The exhausted, dysfunctioning mitochondria are eliminated and the proliferation of healthy mitochondria is enhanced.
WHIT cellairone® YOU CAN ACHIEVE:
Better utilization of oxygen, consequently better endurance performance
Mental clarity during physical activity and Improved sympatho parasympathico index
Improved aerobic and anaerobic performance
Quicker recovery form sport injuries and from the overtraining syndrome
Increased duration of acute physical load
During IHHT, controlled, therapeutic hypoxia (9–15% oxygen) and hyperoxia (36% oxygen) are implemented in interval. Mitochondria offer to the body the energy necessary in order to successfully respond to physical loads during any type of physical activity!